Mexico and India: one progresses in automation and the other establishes itself as a reference for electronic voting


Asymmetries in the use and application of electoral technology are obvious among some countries; a clear example is represented by Mexico and India. While the first has just decided to advance a process of voting automation for its nationals residing abroad. the second achieved a new Election Day where almost a billion people were called to vote.

In the Mexican case, a project is currently being promoted that will facilitate the suffrage of nationals abroad. The National Electoral Institute (INE) announced it has approved the guidelines that must be followed to guarantee the implementation of an automated remote voting model.

The authorities established that the Internet E-Voting System —as it is called— must include stages and key elements such as cryptographic key, voter authentication, monitoring, decryption and counting of votes, and measures to safeguard and preserve the information.

In addition to these factors, the INE resolved that the system must be auditable in all its stages, so that the parties involved in the elections participate in the audits, namely, independent parties and candidates, in addition to the electoral authorities.

The electoral body has warned that although it expects to implement the new system as soon as possible, the are no guarantees that it will be ready for application in the upcoming 2021 elections.

However, it was pointed out that as a legal mandate it will be fulfilled, because the most recent migratory data reveals that some 11,700,000 Mexicans are residing in other nations, and the idea is to guarantee their political rights.

In view of this project, Mexico could assess what has been attained by Estonia, a country that since 2005 has implemented online voting, and in last March elections at least 44% of the voters could vote using this online system.

 Opposite Sides of the World

While Mexico is just now taking its first steps in automation, between April and May India accomplished the most populous electronic elections in the world.

Official data indicate that the census encompassed more than 900 million voters, of which 67% voted along 38 days, divided into seven different stages completed between April 11 and May 19. These figures, which are not comparable with any other electoral process, explain by themselves why Indian authorities worked to automate the voting system. Only with the help of technology could the suffrage be guaranteed under the same conditions for the whole country.

In that sense, the many geographic and population-based complexities led this nation to become a pioneer in the implementation of electronic voting. Actual adoption began in 1998 and was consolidated in 2004 when electronic voting machines (EVMs) became the only means of voting.

The Indian automated model is based on an electronic device or tablet displaying the list of candidates aligned with an array of switches at the sides. The voter selects his favorite candidates using such switches and casts the vote. The devices are manufactured by two local companies, Electronic Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) and Bharat Electronics Limited.

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The Dominican Republic nears another electoral blunder


Dominican Republic

Successfully implementing electronic voting is not an easy task. The countries that have efficiently achieved it have done so after extensive planning, involving numerous intermediate steps and significant expert technical advice. Unfortunately, there are other countries that despite skipping steps, stages and key requirements imposed by the process, still expect to bring such an endeavor to fruition. One such country is the Dominican Republic.

By October 6, the date of the mandatory primaries prior to the 2020 General Elections, this Caribbean nation will use an automated election model unrelated to the specialized technology currently used in the world, and that in countries with ample experience, such as Brazil, Estonia, or some counties in the United States, delivers transparent and solid, secure results.

The information offered by the Central Electoral Board (JCE) proper, shows that the nation has decided to advance in automation without taking the necessary technical, logistical and security provisions, so it could again err in the use of electoral technology.

As may be recalled, in the 2016 General Elections, failures occurred that questioned the credibility of the results, inflicted a patrimonial damage and affected democratic institutions.

However, it is now known that the Dominican Republic will debut in electronic voting using software and hardware that was not designed to automate elections. For example, while the computer program was developed by the JCE without performing tests that guarantee its operation, the equipment acquired through an express tender —conveniently described as urgent— are not fit for specialized use in voting. According to what has been leaked in the local press, they seem to be commercial use machines not meeting the proper specifications for an election.

Finding the most appropriate automated model for a country can be arduous. Nonetheless Democracy is worth it. The criteria that prevails must lead to the acquisition of a system that guarantees the security, secrecy and transparency of the vote. Also, the advantages of electronic voting must be provided for: safety, swiftness and auditability.

To comply with this requirement, it is vital to advance a tender in accordance with the highest standards. Namely, it pays to consider an international summons to elections technology providers, have them prove their experience in the field and their ability to offer a flexible electronic voting model adjusted to the legal, technical, financial and even idiosyncratic needs of the nation.

To this, it must be added that the equipment to be purchased must be designed exclusively for voting and tallying purposes.

Apparently, the Dominican Republic, instead of focusing its efforts and resources toward providing its electorate with the best possible electronic voting, has opted for a technology that places it just around the corner of a new electoral mishap.

Brazil extends the use of Biometrics to protect votes


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After 11 years of having incorporated Biometrics technology into their election systems –fingerprint scanning for identity verification– Brazil is preparing to close the cycle, expanding its use. The plan is to advance the plan seeking that the majority of the 148 million registered voters in this nation have access to the devices that ensure the identification of voters.

Better known as biometric identification, this tool has gone from a widespread use in the corporate and industrial world –for instance, for personnel Access Control– to enjoy adoption by electoral bodies. The measure of expanding Biometrics coverage to elections is turning Brazil into one of its greatest exponents.

In Brazil, the electoral platform is in charge of the Superior Electoral Tribunal (TSE), meaning that voting machine manufacture, and management of the voting and tallying system enabling today’s 100% automated voting, are the responsibility of this agency. This includes electoral equipment featuring numeric keyboards that capture fingerprints prior to casting votes.

According to TSE sources, the decision to employ Biometrics stemmed from the necessity to eliminate wrongdoings associated just to double voting and identity impersonation, which are persistent irregularities in Latin America.

In order to face such challenge, in 2008 fingerprint gathering machines were put in use prior to casting votes, and gradually TSE increased their use. For example, while in 2014 Biometrics covered just 16.4% of the registry or 23.3 million voters, in 2018 it covered 50% of the electorate, which then amounted to 147.2 million people.

In order to further expand these figures, in several regions the electoral authority has ruled the mandatory taking fingerprints at the regional offices. An example is Sao Paulo, where since February voters are urged to have their fingerprints taken, a step that enables them to vote in the upcoming 2020 elections.

As may be recalled, the Brazilian electronic voting model mandatorily requires each voter to produce his/her ID document on arrival at the voting station, but in the case the voting takes place in a city already having biometric identity checking, a voter may proceed directly to a device that checks his/her identity, instead of searching names in old-style voter listings.

In this fashion, illegally voting impersonating another voter or voting several times, something that has muddled results in many countries and cramped citizen’s trust in the system, is being successfully defeated in Brazil, by allowing biometric technology to greatly advance the electoral endeavor. By using technology, it is obvious that protecting the identity of voters, their votes are getting more secure.